Urenio Watch Watch: Innovation Measurement

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard

As innovation becomes a key determinant for long-run economic growth and social well-being, the OECD Scoreboard provides a comprehensive picture of countries’ performance in the areas of science, technology, globalisation and industry.

The OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard 2005, the seventh in a series spanning over a decade, explores the growing interaction between knowledge and globalisation at the centre of the ongoing transformation of OECD economies.

The STI Scoreboard brings together over 200 figures, many of which are new to this edition, to help examine emerging policy issues, including the international mobility of researchers and scientists, the increasing pace of innovation as measured by patenting, the growth of the information economy, the changing role of multinational enterprises, new patterns in trade competitiveness, and the emergence of key international players outside the OECD area, notably China.

The Scoreboard has become a widely used reference which combines statistical rigour with easy access and readability. The key findings are presented as bullet points alongside graphs highlighting the relative performance of countries. In addition, brief technical notes provide further methodological detail on the indicators, along with links to useful references and data sources. More detailed data are also provided in the form of a statistical annex.

Table of Contents


Executive Summary

A. R&D and Innovation: creating and diffusing knowledge
A.1.Investment in knowledge
A.2.Trends in domestic R&D expenditure
A.3.R&D financing and performance
A.4.R&D in non-OECD economies

A.5.Business R&D
A.6.Business R&D by size classes of firms
A.7.Business R&D by industry
A.8.Health-related R&D
A.9.R&D linkages
A.10.Internationalisation of manufacturing R&D
A.11.Government R&D budgets
A.12.Tax treatment of R&D
A.13.Innovation in small and medium-sized firms
A.14.Scientific articles
A.15.Venture capital

B. Human resources in science and technology: knowledge and skills
B.1.Flows of university graduates
B.2.International mobility of doctoral students
B.3.S&E doctorates and postdoctorates to foreign citizens in the United States
B.4.Employment of tertiary-level graduates
B.5.Human resources in science and technology
B.6.International mobility of the highly skilled
B.7.R&D personnel
B.9.Foreign scholars in the United States
B.10.Human resources in S&T in non-OECD economies

C. Patents: protecting and commercialising knowledge
C.1.Triadic patent families
C.2.Patent intensity
C.3.Patent applications to the European Patent Office
C.4.ICT-related patents
C.5.Biotechnology patents
C.6.Foreign ownership of domestic inventions
C.7.Domestic ownership of inventions made abroad
C.8.International co-operation in patenting activity
C.9.Internationalisation of ICT-related inventions
C.10.Internationalisation of biotechnology inventions
C.11.Geographic concentration of patents

D. ICT: an enabler for the knowledge society
D.1.Investment in ICT equipment and software
D.2.ICT occupations and skills
D.3.Telecommunications networks
D.4.Internet hosts and domain names
D.5.Internet subscribers and secure servers
D.6.Broadband and security
D.7.ICT access by households
D.8.Use of the Internet by individuals
D.9.Internet use by businesses
D.10.Electronic commerce volume
D.11.Internet commerce activity
D.12.Telecommunication pricing
D.13.ICT in non-OECD economies
D.14.Size and growth of the ICT sector
D.15.Contribution of the ICT sector to employment
D.16.International trade in ICT goods
D.17.R&D in selected ICT industries

E. Knowledge flows and the global enterprise
E.1.Trends in international trade and investment flows
E.2.International trade
E.3.Exposure to international trade competition by industry
E.4.Intra-firm trade
E.5.Foreign direct investment flows
E.6.Activity of affiliates under foreign control in manufacturing
E.7.Activity of affiliates under foreign control in services
E.8.Trends in the employment of foreign affiliates
E.9.Share of turnover under foreign control in selected manufacturing and services sectors
E.10.The contribution of multinationals to value added and labour productivity
E.11.The contribution of multinationals to productivity growth
E.12.Technological balance of payments

F. The impact of knowledge on productive activities
F.1.Income and productivity levels
F.2.Labour productivity growth
F.3.Growth accounts for OECD countries
F.4.Labour productivity growth by industry
F.5.Technology- and knowledge-intensive industries
F.6.The structure of OECD economies
F.7.International trade by technology intensity
F.8.Exports from high- and medium-high-technology industries
F.9.Contributions to the manufacturing trade balance
F.10.The interdependence of services and manufacturing
F.11.The changing nature of manufacturing

Annex A : Classification of manufacturing industries based on technology

Annex B : Main OECD Databases Used

Annex C : Statistical Tables


OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2005 – Towards a knowledge-based economy