The geographical expansion of innovation networks globally is giving rise to various forms of hybrid systems of innovation in which established innovation hubs cooperate with agents and organizations scattered all over the world. Any innovation ecosystem can develop a hybrid dimension by using digital / virtual platforms either to extend the innovation supply chain and profit from technology providers located in remote regions or to involve users in the innovation and product development processes. In both cases, the virtual space (composed of networks, online tools, and e-services) enables a wider involvement of suppliers and users, changing substantially the dynamics of innovation.
Below are two papers dealing with these issues:
Hybrid Innovation: The Dynamics of Collaboration Between Public and Private in the Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) Innovation System, by Yuwei Lin, which analyses the FLOSS (Free/Libre Open Source Software) community and identifies an alternative innovation pattern quite distinct from that found in conventional technological innovation systems. Unlike innovation based on a strong professional culture involving close collaboration between professionals in the academic sector and corporations, FLOSS (Free/Libre Open Source Software) entails a global knowledge network, which consists of 1) a heterogeneous community of individuals and organisations who do not necessarily have professional backgrounds in computer science but competent skills to understand programming and working in a public domain; 2) corporations. Commercialisation of OSS denotes a hybrid innovation system, which takes the advantage of acquiring resources both from the community and firms. The community offers space for experimental projects and informal communications, while firms stabilises and standardises the development of these community projects by incorporating them together and putting into markets.
The Virtual Urban Innovation Center by Dr. Ron Dvir, which focuses on people involvement in the innovation process: (1) Designing the concept of virtual (hybrid) urban innovation center. Using learning from physical innovation centers, (2 creating a virtual platform (e.g. through 2nd lifelogie), and (3)integrating the virtual innovation center with other web based services that operate in the city.